The appearance of numerical control lathe and bed of general be open to traffic are similar, press the part such as refrigeration and system, lubricant system to comprise by system of box of lathe bed, main shaft, tool carrier, feed namely. The feed system of numerical control lathe and bed of general be open to traffic have qualitative distinction, traditional and common lathe has feed box and commutative gear to wear, and numerical control lathe is to use servo electric machinery to sneak away through drive of ball guide screw directly board with tool carrier implementation feed moves, consequently the structure of feed system simplifies greatly.
Accuse the classification of lathe
Breed of numerical control lathe is various, norms is differ, can undertake classified by following methods.
1.Press position of lathe main shaft to classify
Lathe of numerical control of horizontal of lathe of 1) horizontal numerical control divides amount to to accuse horizontal slideway center lathe and numerical control to tilt again slideway center lathe. Its tilt slideway structure can make lathe has bigger tigidity, eliminate to cut bits easily.
Lathe of horizontal numerical control
Abbreviation of lathe of numerical control of vertical of lathe of 2) vertical numerical control establishs a car for numerical control, its lathe main shaft is perpendicular at horizontal, the circular workbench with a very big diameter, use the work that hold clip. This kind of machine tool basically is used at machining radial dimension the large and complex part with relatively minor dimension of big, axial.
Lathe of vertical numerical control
2.Press classification of tool carrier amount
Lathe of numerical control of lathe of numerical control of 1) single tool carrier is configured commonly have multiform single tool carrier, like 4 labour lie move dislocation tool carrier or multitask turn tower type is automatic dislocation tool carrier.
Short-hilted broadsword wears numerical control lathe
The double tool carrier of this kind of lathe configures lathe of numerical control of 2) double tool carrier parallel distributings, also can be mutual and perpendicular distributing.
Lathe of numerical control of double tool carrier
3.Press functional classification
Lathe of 1) economy numerical control
Use a pace to present electromotor and sheet piece opportunity is right what after the feed system of common lathe undertakes transforming, form is simple and easy model numerical control lathe, cost is inferior, but automation degree and function are poorer, turning treatment precision is not tall also, apply to the circumgyrate with not high demand kind the turning treatment of the spare parts.
Lathe of economy numerical control
Lathe of 2) ordinary numerical control machines a requirement to undertake the numerical control lathe that be designed technically and provide system of general numerical control and forms on the structure according to turning, function of numerical control system is strong, automation degree and treatment precision are taller also, apply to general circumgyrate kind the turning treatment of the spare parts. Lathe of this kind of numerical control can control two reference axis at the same time, namely X axis and Z axis.
Lathe of ordinary numerical control
3) turning machining center is on the foundation of lathe of ordinary numerical control, raised C axis and head, more advanced numerical control lathe contains knife library, controallable X, Z and C3 reference axis, linkage control axis can be (X, Z) , (X, C) or (Z, C) . Because raised C axis and milling head, the treatment function of lathe of this kind of numerical control increases greatly, it is OK to divide outside undertaking general turning, can undertake line of radial and axial milling, curved surface milling, center is absent the Konghe of spare parts centre of turning circle is radial of aperture auger cut wait for treatment.
Sketch map of interior of turning machining center
Dyad accuses the structural characteristic of lathe
Compare with traditional lathe photograph, the structure of numerical control lathe has the following characteristic:
1) parts as a result of the two direction motion of tool carrier of numerical control lathe by drive of two servo electromotor, its transmission cable length is so short. Need not use hang annulus, the drive disk assembly such as feed rod, drive tool carrier to move with guide screw coupling directly with servo electromotor. Synchronous leather belt also can be used between servo electromotor guide screw deputy or gear deputy coupling.
2) is muti_function numerical control lathe is to use dc or unit of control of communication main shaft to come drive main shaft, by control the instruction makes infinitely variable speeds, multistage gear need not be used between main shaft deputy will have speed change. To enlarge gearshift limits, pass one class gear even commonly now deputy, in order to implement section stepless speed regulation, although such, the structure inside headstock is gotten simplier than traditional lathe already much. The another structure characteristic of numerical control lathe is stiffness big, this is to match with the high accuracy control that controls a system, so that get used to the treatment of high accuracy.
The characteristic of the 3rd structure of lathe of 3) numerical control is to procrastinate gently move. Tool carrier shift uses ball guide screw commonly deputy. Ball guide screw deputy one of crucial and mechanical components that are numerical control lathe, the scroll bearing that two end install ball guide screw is special uranium bear, its pressure angle compares commonly used afferent thrust ball bear should get greatly much. Conjugate of this kind of special bearing is installed, it is to choose match, when fortunately bearing leaves factory, be didymous most.
4) is moved to procrastinate light, of numerical control lathe lubricant more sufficient, use oily mist to lubricate automatically for the most part.
5) because the price of numerical control machine tool the taller, life that dominates a system is longer, so the sliding slideway of numerical control lathe also asks wearability is good. Numerical control lathe uses the guide that set steel commonly, retentive time grows such machine tool precision quite, its service life also can be lengthened a lot of.
Lathe of 6) numerical control still has treatment cooling and sufficient, defend relatively the characteristic such as rigor, whole sealing is in commonly when voluntary movement or close partly condition.
Lathe of 7) numerical control still deserves to have unit of automatic platoon bit commonly.
The three distribution that control lathe
The rigid structure system of lathe of typical numerical control is comprised, include main shaft main transfer machinery, feed main transfer machinery, tool carrier, lathe bed, auxiliary unit (cutting tool is exchanged automatically orgnaization, lubricant with spacing of bits of cutting fluid device, platoon, overload) wait for a part.
The relative position of slideway of lathe bed of numerical control lathe and horizontal is like place of graph 1 – 2 to show, it has form of 4 kinds of layout: Graph 1-2 (a) makes the same score lathe bed, graph 1-2(b) inclined lathe bed, graph 1-2(c) makes the same score lathe bed inclined slide, graph 1-2(d) is establish lathe bed.
The contrapuntal buy of slideway of lathe bed of numerical control lathe and horizontal pursues
The craft sex of horizontal lathe bed is good, the treatment of facilitating slideway face. Horizontal lathe bed deserves to sail upstream the athletic precision that makes the same score the tool carrier that place to be able to raise tool carrier, can use at the layout of lathe of large numerical control or lathe of small-sized and rigid numerical control commonly. But horizontal lathe bed because bottom space is little, reason discharges bits difficulty. Look from structural dimension, tool carrier level is placed make slide transverse dimension is longer, increased the structural size of direction of machine tool width thereby. Following plan institute are shown,
Lathe bed of level of numerical control lathe
Configuration of horizontal lathe bed tilts placement slide, deploy shield of bend inclined slideway, form of this kind of layout, the respect has the characteristic with good sex of Ding Yi of horizontal lathe bed, on the other hand the dimension of direction of machine tool width relatively of horizontal configuration slide want small, and platoon bits is convenient. Horizontal lathe bed deserves to go up tilt form of layout of inclined slide of placement slide and configuration of inclined lathe bed is used generally by place of lathe of medium, small-sized numerical control. The characteristic of form of these two kinds of layout is a bits easy, hot scrap won’t pile up to go up in slideway, also facilitate installation discharges bits automatically implement; The operation is convenient, install manipulator easily, in order to implement stand-alone automation; The machine tool covers an area of an area small, the shell is simple, beautiful, easy implementation is enclosed defend.
Numerical control lathe tilts lathe bed
The angle that its slideway tilts is inclined lathe bed respectively 30 ° , 45 ° , 60 ° , 75 ° and 90 ° (call) of vertical lathe bed, if tilt angle is small, discharge bits inconvenience; If tilt point of view is old, the oriented sex of slideway is poor, condition getting power is poor also. The bulk that slideway banking angle spends still can affect the proportion of height of machine tool over all dimension and width directly. Consider the factor above integratedly, in the numerical control lathe of small norms the gradient of its lathe bed with 60 advisable.
Vertical lathe bed