Made in China need how “temperamental”

日前,“复兴号”在京沪高铁开启时速350公里体验运营,作为“新四大发明”之首的中国高铁再次引发关注。而在智能手机、民用无人机、新能源汽车等领域,各种功能多样的新产品也如雨后春笋般出现。如今,中国制造的品牌正在变得响亮起来。  近日召开的国务院常务会议指出,在东中西部选择部分城市或城市群建设国家级示范区,要聚焦创新体制机制、深化开放合作、破解制造业发展瓶颈,与“互联网+”& other;双创”结合,打造先进制造工业云平台,在创新体系建设、智能和绿色制造等方面先行先试。  中国制造需要怎样的“气质”?如何推动制造业转型升级,加强制造强国建设?  1、高端“由虚入实”提升制造业“含金量”    走进深圳市大疆创新科技有限公司,多款无人机产品让人眼花缭乱。其中,一款飞在空中的无人机,还可以根据人的手势实现飞升和降落,感应非常灵敏。& other;创新产生的高端产品可以引领新需求。Throughout the &;大疆公司一位工作人员说。近年来,大疆通过创新研发,航拍无人机不断更新换代,还出现了农用无人机和工业无人机等新产品。& other;十年前,我在深圳莲花村创业的时候,无人机还不是一个产业。Throughout the &;大疆创新科技有限公司总经理汪滔说,2012年,大疆推出了第一代四旋翼飞行器,开创了消费级无人机市场,并成为第一款可以引领全球科技潮流的中国产品。  据统计,去年,深圳的无人机企业已经超过300家,生产销售了全球95%的消费级无人机。& other;可以说,无人机产业孕育在深圳、兴盛在深圳,这里是名副其实的‘全球无人机之都’.Throughout the &;汪滔说。  如今,在深圳、株洲“Power valley & throughout;、武汉“Optical valley & throughout;等地方,创新因子正在流动汇聚。有调查显示,在2016年全球制造业竞争力指数排名中,我国位列前三。我国制造业的“New map & throughout;正在逐渐显现。然而,也正如工信部部长苗圩指出的,当前我国制造业的发展面临一些新情况新问题,例如投资增速不高,制造业增加值在GDP中的占比持续下降,资源要素“脱实向虚”趋势明显。  对此,上海交通大学教授林忠钦认为,“脱实向虚”反映出我国制造业“含金量”不高的问题。& other;我国是手机生产第一大国,但去年全部手机企业的利润不及苹果公司一家,根本原因还是产品档次低,科技含量不高。Throughout the &;工信部副部长辛国斌说,一些核心零部件、材料和关键技术缺失,也使中国制造长期处在全球价值链中低端。  辛国斌说,要营造有利于创新的环境,激发先进制造业发展活力,形成市场化要素倒逼机制,促使企业从主要依靠资源、能源投入向创新驱动转变。同时要组织攻克一批关键共性技术,支持企业加强创新,加强智能终端等研发,提升产品科技含量,增加中国制造的“高端气质”.  2、智能淬炼制造业转型升级“Golden key & throughout;    在美的集团广州智能工厂,100多台机器人、机械臂有条不紊地完成铜管折弯、部件组装等作业,员工可对全部生产环节实时监控。& other;智能制造改变的不仅是效率。Throughout the &;美的集团副总裁顾炎民说,美的用智能技术化解成本压力,打开新市场空间。  如今,“智能”渐成潮流,在制造业领域也同样不例外。  三一重工的“18号厂房”、长飞光纤自动包装流水线生产车间、正泰新能源杭州智能工厂…& hellip;业内人士称,小到制造企业,大到全国各地,乃至世界各国,推进智能制造正逐渐成为一种共识。  据国际数据公司(IDC)发布的《中国工业机器人》报告预测,到2018年,中国制造业机器人采用率将增长150%。& other;随着机器人技术的不断发展,大量的工业机器人将会出现在制造业等传统行业。Throughout the &;人工智能产业技术创新战略联盟联合秘书长张伟民说。  国务院日前印发的《新一代人工智能发展规划》提出,力争到2030年把我国建设成为世界主要的人工智能创新中心。目前,新一代人工智能正加速向制造业等行业渗透,新业态、新模式不断涌现。  正如中国工程院院士李伯虎所说,“互联网+人工智能+大数据”的时代正在到来,“智慧云制造”是云计算在制造领域的落地和拓展,是实施“Throughout 2025 & made in China;And & other互联网+制造”行动计划的一种智能制造模式和手段。Deputy director general of the ministry department Li Beiguang said, the information technology into the traditional manufacturing industry’s transformation and upgrading of China’s manufacturing industry & otherGolden key & throughout;,目前已在服装、家电、装备制造等多个领域大范围实践,不仅解决了存量过剩、效率低等问题,还催生出分享经济、众包众创等新业态。  苗圩指出,要以深化制造业与互联网融合发展为重心,支持企业加快数字化、网络化、智能化改造,促进形成数字经济时代下的新型供给能力。  3、绿色确立低碳发展新模式    在一汽解放汽车有限公司无锡柴油机厂再制造基地,锈迹斑斑的废旧发动机经过专业的再制造,变成了一排排“新”发动机…& hellip;据了解,目前该基地面向以旧换新和传统发动机大修等特定需求客户,已经实现了订单式生产。  再制造,不仅使废旧发动机实现了绿色循环使用,其整个生产过程也十分绿色。& other;仅在清洗工序,废液污染便可下降80%。Throughout the &;该基地负责人蒋伯明说。  据统计,该基地投产6年来,5000余台再制造发动机已经走向市场,回收的产品附加值已突破1.25亿元,循环利用钢材1800吨,节电700万千瓦时,减少二氧化碳排放300余吨。  近年来,我国传统制造业绿色化改造不断推进。钢铁、有色、化工等重点行业通过实施绿色化改造,提高了能源利用效率,减少了污染物排放,促进了工业固废资源化利用。同时,一些地区也在以工业园区为平台,探索低碳发展新模式。  工业是我国能源消耗及温室气体排放的主要领域。数据显示,2016年全国能源消费总量为43.6亿吨标准煤,其中工业能源消费量占70%左右。工信部节能与综合利用司副司长王燕说,工业领域必须加快实现绿色低碳转型,推动工业领域二氧化碳排放量尽早达峰,才能为其他领域二氧化碳的排放腾出空间。  专家建议,我国应全面推行绿色制造,推进清洁生产、能效提升和资源综合利用,构建起科技含量高、资源消耗低、环境污染少的绿色制造体系,加快生产方式“绿色化”Conversion;同时,引导工业园区、重点工业企业资源能源集约利用,推动部分行业、工业园区二氧化碳排放率先达峰,让绿色制造成为中国制造的一种靓丽“气质”.(原标题:中国制造需要怎样的“气质”)(来源:光明日报)

Yu bamboo: the development of the real economy the difficult key points in manufacturing industry

The revitalization of the real economy, is a new round of technological revolution and industrial revolution, creating new international competitive advantage of strategic choice, also adapt to grasp the new normal, speed up the economic development in the conversion of kinetic energy between the old and the new major initiatives, is to build a well-off society in an all-round way, implement & other;Two one hundred & throughout;The inevitable requirement of target, must, in accordance with “made in China 2025” strategic deployment, firmly seize the revitalization of the real economy and the main line, promote transformation and upgrading, speed up the development of manufacturing.
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manufacturing industry is the skeleton and support of the real economy, is also the main battleground of the revitalization of the real economy.The rise of manufacturing is the key to China’s economic strength ascension and the main body, but also innovation, take the key point in the future, the determines the quality and efficiency of the real economy.The revitalization of the real economy, focus on manufacturing, and the difficulty in manufacturing.To solve the problem facing the manufacturing industry, it is necessary to pay more attention to deepening the reform of supply side structural, release manufacturing enterprise management activity.
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at present, our country manufacturing industry preliminary have the ability to compete with developed countries, but the big but not strong, lack of innovation, production pattern and extensive, low resource utilization problem bothering the development of manufacturing industry.In promoting the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing process, to deal with relationship between services and manufacturing, to speed up the development of producer services to promote transformation and upgrading of manufacturing industry.To handle & other;Hardware & throughout;With & other;Software & throughout;The relationship of break restricts manufacturing industry transformation and upgrading of the weak links.To deal with the relationship between the government and the market and the policy the swimmer focused on basic commonality and strategic areas.
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according to promote medium enterprise financing, the direction of the middle and lower reaches of industry cooperation, aimed at intelligent manufacturing this emphasis, pays special attention to the innovative talents and & otherThe builders & throughout;Cultivate the key link, promote upgrading of the made in China, needs to take concrete measures.It must strengthen the key generic technology supply, 2 to vigorously promote the intelligent manufacturing, third, we need to strengthen the construction of standard brand promotion product quality, the four will greatly cultivate and carry forward the spirit of craftsmen.
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industry is the foundation of state, the manufacturing industry is the core of the real economy.Definitely require the party central committee and state council in accordance with the “made in China 2025” for our country to carry out the strategy of manufacturing nation the first decade of the strategic plan, adhere to the principle of market leading, government guidance, and exert the principal role of the enterprise and play the leading role of a major project, accelerate the innovation and development, manufacturing to promote manufacturing strategic shift from quantity expansion to quality improvement, push the made in China to created in China, Chinese speed toward the Chinese quality, Chinese products to the Chinese brand, the revitalization of the real economy to produce power construction.
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the revitalization of the real economy, it is to cope with a new round of technological revolution and industrial revolution, creating new international competitive advantage of strategic choice, also adapt to grasp the new normal, speed up the economic development in the conversion of kinetic energy between the old and the new major initiatives, but also to build a well-off society in an all-round way, implement & otherTwo one hundred & throughout;The inevitable requirement of target, must firmly seize the revitalization of the real economy and the main line, promote transformation and upgrading, speed up the development of manufacturing.
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& have spent& have spentManufacturing industry is the skeleton and support of the real economy, as well as the revitalization of the real economy of the main
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since China’s reform and opening up, China’s real economy maintained a strong momentum of development, the leading global growth rate, has become the world’s manufacturing power and the second largest economy.In 2010, China accounted for nearly 20% of the total global manufacturing.In accordance with the international standard classification, in all the 22 kinds of industrial textiles in our country, power equipment, transportation and so on seven big industry scale, the world’s number one.Among more than 500 kinds of industrial products, our country has more than 220 production first in the world, manufactured goods exports accounted for about 1\/7 of global, is the world’s biggest exporter of manufactured goods.It can be said that the rise of manufacturing is the key to China’s economic strength ascension and mainly, but also innovative, take the key to the future the commanding heights, determines the quality and efficiency of the real economy.
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at the same time, China’s manufacturing industry is not strong, only the added value of manufacturing is only 26.5%, far lower than developed countries 35% to 40%, is still in the global value chain and mid-range, manufacturing energy consumption per unit output is six times that of the nine times in Japan, Germany and the United States.To promote China’s manufacturing industry from big to strong is the important content of the revitalization of the real economy.
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on the revitalization of the real economy, focus on manufacturing, difficulties in manufacturing
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structural unbalance of supply and demand in China’s economy faces the real economy, finance and real economic imbalances, real estate and the real economy unbalanced three structural problems.
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on the one hand, & other;To take off the real to virtual & throughout;Tend to be more and more obvious, the society appeared early & other;To industrialization & throughout;The mistakes.A large number of social capital, labor and other elements, from manufacturing to stocks, bonds, real estate, etc., to the phenomenon of money money, quick money abound.To the fall in manufacturing of part of the opinion that services should be the main development in the future in our country, the importance of manufacturing.These one-sided, specious views and understanding, reduces the society as a whole understanding of manufacturing important position, may induce premature in China & other;To industrialization & throughout;The problem.
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, on the other hand, manufacturing industry upgrading in China is facing dual extrusion technology and cost, transformation and upgrading of pressure.Affected by factors of rising costs, resources and environment constraints, and export market downturn factors, such as greater difficulties, some traditional manufacturing industry development in our country industry profit margins declining, some industries and even facing the industry losses.In 2014 China’s top 500 manufacturing enterprises, the average profit margin is only 2.15%.If you can’t accurately understand and grasp the manufacturing industry in the development of the real economy status and role, and as soon as possible to reverse & other;To take off the real to virtual & throughout;It is difficult to implement, the revitalization of the real economy.
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to solve the problems and challenges facing the industry, we must pay more attention to deepening the reform of supply side structural and release of manufacturing enterprises dynamic and vibrant
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one of the main goals of supply side structural reform is solve the problem of entity economic imbalances, and the real economy imbalance is mainly manifested in the manufacturing.On the surface, the recent manufacturing industry in our country faces overcapacity and falling prices, rising debt, growth downward, etc. The problem is caused by lack of demand.But in essence or supply side out of the question, low-end of excess supply, supply of high-end obvious shortage has become the main contradiction in the current our country manufacturing industry development.
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industry serious excess capacity at the same time, a large number of key equipment, the core technology and high-end products still need to rely on imports.Most of China’s manufacturing supply can only meet the needs of poor quality low price, supply structure is not adapt to the demand of new change, mid-range of industry as a whole is still in its global value chain.Accelerate the construction of manufacturing power must be on the supply side, in order to supply side structural reform measures for the real economy.
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at present, China’s manufacturing industry has the basic capability of the competition and the developed countries, but the big but not strong, weak industrial base, imported advanced technology and innovation ability insufficiency, the extensive mode of production, low resource utilization problem.
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deal with the relationship between services and manufacturing, in order to speed up the development of producer services to promote transformation and upgrading of manufacturing
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on the one hand, to promote manufacturing and service industries to upgrade promote each other, to build industry & other;The twin-engine & throughout;.In recent years, China’s service industry has developed rapidly in 2016, the added value of a share of GDP has reached 51.6%, service constantly emerging of new forms, new kinetic energy become support economic growth.At the same time, along with our country industrialization process, demographic dividend gradually disappear, and late into an ageing population, low labor cost advantage is gradually disappearing.Manufacturing staff of 2010, China’s average wage is 30916 yuan, rose to 55324 yuan in 2015.Boston consulting group, according to a report issued by the China’s manufacturing cost is almost the same with the United States.Manufacturing and services, therefore, a drop in a liter of contrast, the pessimistic view of China’s manufacturing industry development trend.
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to clearly see that the developed countries & other;To industrialization & throughout;The failure of the history and the reality of China as a manufacturing power needs to show that manufacturing is the foundation of industry, still in the development of service industry at the same time, can not be ignored, manufacturing & other; it too earlyTo industrialization & throughout;.Globally, the trend in the development of manufacturing industry is gradually by the production service, is becoming more and more as a service.Even is dominated by the service industry industrial structure transformation, also tend to show the services and manufacturing system integration, collaborative development.Development of manufacturing and services is not a competition, to manufacturing and services integration development to promote transformation and upgrading of industrial structure adjustment and economic in our country.
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, on the other hand, producer services play a good supporting function in the transformation and upgrading of manufacturing security.The fact that the Chinese manufacturing low cost competitive advantage continuously weakening trend is irreversible, through technical innovation to upgrade is the only way to stronger manufacturing.As a manufacturing service outsourcing development of producer services, such as finance, software, modern logistics and service outsourcing, etc., as well as the electronic commerce, energy conservation, environmental protection, cultural creativity, emerging services such as health services, to improve manufacturing value added, lifting the potential in China manufacturing industry in the global value chain.
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but, in our country, with emphasis on the research and development of productive service industry development lags behind, as a share of GDP is only about 15%, more than 1 times the gap with developed countries, severely restricted the & other;Throughout China’s smart &;Process.Therefore, to promote “made in China 2025” must also be in focus in the development of manufacturing industry comprehensive productive service link, promote the producer services to the professional and high-end development, manufacturing and service sector promoting a good momentum.
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handle & other;Hardware & throughout;With & other;Software & throughout;The relationship of crack restriction industry transformation and upgrading of the weak link & have spent
significant technology center construction, attaches great importance to the basis of innovation.Aspects of personnel training, professional skills upgrading, make to support manufacturing powerhouse construction of talent team.On the one hand, focus on manufacturing the basis and core technology.Look from the investment, in 2016 China’s spending on research and trial development as a share of GDP rose to 2.1%, has reached the level of moderately developed countries, become the second only to the United States the world’s second largest r&d spending.Look from the output results, in 2016 China’s invention patent applications have been 6 years in a row in the world.A new generation of information technology industry, high-end CNC machine tools and robots ten key areas such as invention patent annual average growth rate of more than 23%.
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, however, the core equipment, key parts and basic software also dependent on imports and foreign enterprises, supporting industrial upgrading of technical reserves, technology innovation chain is the different degree disjunction problem, difficult to control the emerging global competition in the field of technology and industry.
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must be in accordance with the “made in China 2025” deployment, correctly handle the relationship between innovation and cutting-edge innovation, for example, a new generation of information technology industry to highlight the software, integrated circuit, new display, cloud computing, big data, virtual display, green computing, artificial intelligence and intelligent hardware such as strategic, pioneering industry, the key breakthrough core general chip design and manufacture the bottleneck.
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, on the other hand, huge scale, upgrade to support manufacturing personnel.Machine is materialized, the key is to use and design of the machine.At present, the large scale of manufacturing personnel, manufacturing scale above enterprise human resources total of 85.89 million people, professional and technical personnel 8.09 million people.However, talents and powers craftsmen shortage in our country, the lack of talent pool, senior manufacturing senior technicians in the industry workers the proportion is only 5%, in 2016 the national senior engineer, technician job vacancy and job number average ratio is reached more than 2 times.
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in auto manufacturing talent, for example, has more than 10 years experience of senior personnel accounts for only 19.3%, far less than 45.2% in Germany.At the same time also want to see, talent cultivation is a systematic engineering for a long time.Like a car industry to develop a mature technology practitioners, usually takes 4 to 10 years.Must overcome the short-term impetuous tendency, therefore, for a long time to work, building system, build platform, perfect multi-level multi-type cultivation system, paying equal attention to theory and practice of talents, with an emphasis on integration education to strengthen skills training, the workers into a craftsman, building China’s manufacturing to the high-end talent team can support.Around & other;Throughout the four base &;Construction, intelligent manufacturing, & other;Internet + manufacturing & throughout;Key areas, such as the manufacturing talent development planning guide also put forward accordingly, cultivating advanced design, key technology, materials, digital modeling and simulation, industrial control and automation, industrial services in the cloud and big data use and other aspects of professional and technical personnel.
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deal with the relationship between government and market, the swimmer will policy focus in the field of general and strategic
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functional industry policy is more focus on the industry competitiveness.On the one hand, to promote manufacturing industry policy by selective to functional transformation.In the face of new technologies, new forms and new industry constantly emerging era of intelligence, to introduce, imitate direction selectivity of industrial policy, trying to directly support through subsidies, taxes, regulation and other forms, protection or limitation of certain industries, the analysis of the new information is difficult to accurate, more and more difficult to meet the requirements for industrial development.
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, therefore, in order to improve the market competition order, incentives innovation as the basic orientation of the functional industry policy, through subsidies and market services, human resources training, promoting industrial development on the basis of function, make the competitive advantage of enterprises to stand out, highlight the fundamental status of enterprises, industrial policy requirements more adapt to the new situation.
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and at the same time, considering on the part of the strategic areas in our country is still in the catch up stage, the strategic areas for relating to major national security, to give full play to catch up with phase concentrated the advantages of resources to realize the key breakthrough, also need to combined with industry development direction to the hands of the moderate government, realize the upgrading of industries across generations catch up.
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, on the other hand, more prominent standard brand drag force, improve the quality of manufacturing products.In China the world’s first manufacturing scale, but made in China’s reputation is not high, in the aspect of improve product quality and a lot of homework to fill.Therefore, focus on improving product quality, and promote supply system from the low-end products to adapt to demand changes in the high-end products is a necessary choice.Some consumers to go abroad to buy domestic production of the toilet cover, rice cooker, such as consumer goods, is to buy overseas product inspection standards.The main responsibility for specific product quality, is the enterprise.But on the whole manufacturing quality improvement, the government should in aspects such as perfecting standard system, encourage enterprises to build brand better play a role.
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standard products and services to the market’s pass, represents the rules say and industry competition.To substantive participation in international standardization work, so as to gain the initiative in setting international standards, to edge into the international standard in our country, this for our country across technical barriers in international trade, enhance the international competitiveness of industry has very important significance.At the same time, in the latest national brand index, our country in 163 eligible countries only ranked 64th, manufacturing with the world’s first superpower status serious discrepancy.To be more focus on improve the quality of products, and improve the value of brand, brand development space, cultivate characteristic and connotation, have inside information of made in China brand.
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according to promote medium enterprise financing, the direction of the middle and lower reaches of industry cooperation, aimed at intelligent manufacturing the core direction, pays special attention to the innovative talents and & otherThe builders & throughout;Cultivate the key link, promote upgrading of the made in China, for the real economy development to lay the solid foundation.
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to strengthen key generic technology supply
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on basic research and strategic frontier, strive to break through the key technology, eliminate from the lab products between industrialization & otherGap & throughout;, in order to increase the effectiveness of key generic technology supply.To market-oriented principle of accelerating manufacturing innovation center construction projects, solve the problem of the lack of common technology for industry, promote more scientific research achievements into real productive forces.
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push intelligent manufacturing have spent
focus awareness, control and decision-making, execution, core key link, the breakthrough of high-grade CNC machine tools and industrial robots, intelligent sensor and control equipment, intelligent detection and assembly equipment and smart key board equipment logistics and warehousing equipment.At the same time, to speed up cultivating discrete intelligent manufacturing, intelligent manufacturing process, the network collaborative manufacturing, mass customization and remote operations services such as intelligent manufacturing mode, promote the traditional manufacturing to glow the new vitality.
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to strengthen the construction of standard brand promotion product quality have spent
a is to speed up the transformation of international standardization, improve quality and grade of everyday consumer products, to meet consumer demand for high-end products.Group a number of products in cooperation with the international standard and quality activities, especially to build a batch of food quality testing demonstration center.
& have spent2 it is to support some of the industry association in
independent brand construction, and cultivate a batch of textile product brands, good support industry and local government and other major consumer goods fair show, through a variety of ways to expand the visibility and reputation of the brand.
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3 it is to accelerate the construction of a group of professional quality brand public service platform, enhance the quality brand of public service capacity.Exploring to establish a batch of the country with industry characteristics or quality brand information sharing platform, to achieve product quality and brand information open sharing.
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four is to strengthen market supervision and total quality knowledge propaganda, carry out quality improvement initiative, to crack down on fake and shoddy behavior, infringement of intellectual property rights.
& have spentGreatly cultivate and carry forward the spirit of
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a is to create a social atmosphere of respect for labor, advocating skills, encourage enterprises to set up the management idea of quality first, popularization of lean manufacturing, and other advanced production management mode.Strengthen the craftsman culture, and develop a more skillful craftsman.
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the second is to strengthen professional education, encourage enterprises to coordinate with the schools, scientific research institutions to vocational education and on-the-job training.Highlight the industry guide and encourage the school curriculum and relative industry demand, to improve schools, enterprises and government participating personnel training system.
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three evaluation and use policy is to improve the skilled talents, perfect the system of manufacturing personnel professional standards and refine the professional qualification system.

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